Form 1:
Cell Physiology

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Meaning of cell physiology.

Physiology refers to the branch of biology that deals with the study of functions and activities of life or of living matter such as organs, tissues or cells. It aims at understanding the mechanism of living.

In simpler terms, physiology refers to the processes and functions that take place inside the body cells of organisms.

Cell physiology refers to the study of functions of the cell structures. The cell structures perform various functions of life. In particular:
a) Chloroplasts play a vital role in carbohydrate synthesis.
b) Mitochondrion produces energy required to carry out life processes.
c) Ribosomes manufacture proteins.

These physiological processes require various raw materials for them to take place.

For photosynthesis to occur, carbon (IV) oxide, mineral salts and water have to be taken into the chloroplasts.

For respiration (energy production) to take place, food substrate such as glucose and oxygen have to be taken into the mitochondrion. Energy, carbon (IV) oxide, water and alcohol (in plants) are some of the end products of respiration.

Some of the end products of the physiological processes such as carbon (IV) oxide can be harmful when allowed to accumulate in the cells. They, thus, have to be eliminated from the cells.

This implies that there is a constant flow of materials in and out of the cells and the cell organelles where these physiological processes are taking place. There is a constant movement of materials across the cell membrane in the cells.

This chapter discusses the properties of the cell membrane and the processes through which materials move in and out of the cells.

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