Apparatus are designed for the purpose they are intended in a school chemistry laboratory:(a) Apparatus for measuring volume
1. Measuring cylinderMeasuring cylinders are apparatus used to measure volume of liquid/ solutions. They are calibrated/ graduated to measure any volume required to the maximum.
Burette is a long and narrow/thin apparatus used to measure small accurate and exact volumes of a liquid solution.
It must be clamped first on a stand before being used. It has a tap to run out the required amount out.
They are calibrated/ graduated to run out small volume required to the maximum 50ml/50cm3.
The maximum 50ml/50cm3 calibration/ graduation reading is at the bottom .
This ensures the amount run out from a tap below can be determined directly from burette reading before and after during volumetric analysis. Burettes are expensive and care should be taken when using them.
3. (i) Pipette
Pipette is a long and narrow/thin apparatus that widens at the middle used to measure and transfer small very accurate/exact volumes of a liquid solution.
It is open on either ends. The maximum 25ml/25cm3 calibration/ graduation mark is a visible ring on one thin end.
To fill a pipette to this mark, the user must suck up a liquid solution upto a level above the mark then adjust to the mark using a finger. This requires practice.
(ii) Pipette filler
Pipette filler is used to suck in a liquid solution into a pipette instead of using the mouth. It has a suck, adjust and eject button for ensuring the exact volume is attained. This requires practice.
4. Volumetric flask.
A volumetric flask is thin /narrow but widens at the base/bottom. It is used to measure very accurate/exact volumes of a liquid solution.
The maximum calibration / graduation mark is a visible ring.
5. Dropper/teat pipette
A dropper/teat pipette is a long thin/narrow glass/rubber apparatus that has a flexible rubber head.
A dropper/teat pipette is used to measure very small amount/ drops of liquid solution by pressing the flexible rubber head. The numbers of drops needed are counted by pressing the rubber gently at a time(b)Apparatus for measuring mass
1. Beam balance
A beam balance has a pan where a substance of unknown mass is placed. The scales on the opposite end are adjusted to balance with the mass of the unknown substance. The mass from a beam balance is in grams.
2. Electronic/electric balance.
An electronic/electric balance has a pan where a substance of unknown mass is placed. The mass of the unknown substance in grams is available immediately on the screen.(c)Apparatus for measuring temperature
A thermometer has alcohol or mercury trapped in a bulb with a thin enclosed outlet for the alcohol/mercury in the bulb. If temperature rises in the bulb, the alcohol /mercury expand along the thin narrow enclosed outlet.
The higher the temperature, the more the expansion outside, a calibration /graduation correspond to this expansion and thus changes in temperature.
A thermometer therefore determines the temperature when the bulb is fully dipped in to the substance being tested. To determine the temperature of solid is thus very difficult.
The stop watch/clock is the standard apparatus for measuring time. Time is measured using hours, minutes and second.
Common school stop watch/clock has start, stop and reset button for determining time for a chemical reaction. This requires practice.
A spatula is used to scoop solids which do not require accurate measurement.
2. Deflagrating spoon
A deflagrating spoon is used to scoop solids which do not require accurate measurement mainly for heating. Unlike a spatula, a deflagrating spoon is longer.
1. Test tube.
A test tube is a narrow/thin glass apparatus open on one side. The end of the opening is commonly called the the mouth of the test tube.
2. Boiling/ignition tube.
A boiling/ignition tube is a wide glass apparatus than a test tube open on one side. The end of the opening is commonly called the the mouth of the boiling/ignition tube.
Beaker is a wide calibrated/graduated lipped glass/plastic apparatus used for transferring liquid solution which do not normally require very accurate measurements.
4. Conical flask.
A conical flask is a moderately narrow glass apparatus with a wide base and no calibration/graduation. Conical flasks thus carry/hold exact volumes of liquids that have been measured using other apparatus. It can also be put some solids. The narrow mouth ensures no spillage.
5. Round bottomed flask
A round bottomed flask is a moderately narrow glass apparatus with a wide round base and no calibration/graduation. Round bottomed flask thus carry/hold exact volumes of liquids that have been measured using other apparatus. The narrow/thin mouth prevents spillage.
The flask can also hold (weighed) solids. A round bottomed flask must be held/ clamped when in use because of its wide narrow base.
6. Flat bottomed flask
A flat bottomed flask is a moderately narrow glass apparatus with a wide round base with a small flat bottom.
It has no calibration/graduation.
Flat bottomed flasks thus carry/hold exact volumes of liquids that have been measured using other apparatus. The narrow/thin mouth prevents spirage. They can also hold (weighed) solids.
A flat bottomed flask must be held/ clamped when in use because it is flat narrow base is not stable.
1. Tripod stand
A tripod stand is a three legged metallic apparatus which unstable apparatus are placed on (during heating).Beakers,conical flasks, round bottomed flask and flat bottomed flasks are placed on top of tripod stand (during heating).
2. Wire gauze/mesh
Wire gauze/mesh is a metallic/iron plate of wires crossings. It is placed on top of a tripod stand
(i)It ensures even distribution of heat to prevent cracking glass apparatus
(ii)It holds smaller apparatus that cannot reach the edges of tripod stand
3 Clamp stand
A clamp stand is a metallic apparatus which tightly hold apparatus at their neck firmly.
A clamp stand has a wide metallic base that ensures maximum stability. The height and position of clamping is variable. This require practice
4. Test tube holder
A test tube holder is a hand held metallic apparatus which tightly hold test/boiling/ignition tube at their neck firmly on the other end.
Some test tube holders have wooden handle that prevent heat conduction to the hand during heating.
5. Pair of tong.
A pair of tong is a scissor-like hand held metallic apparatus which tightly hold firmly a small solid sample on the other end.
6. Gas jar
A gas jar is a long wide glass apparatus with a wide base. It is open on one end. It is used to collect/put gases.
1. Filter funnel
A filter funnel is a wide mouthed (mainly plastic) apparatus that narrow drastically at the bottom to a long extension.
When the long extension is placed on top of another apparatus, a liquid solution can safely be directed through the wide mouth of the filter funnel into the apparatus without spirage.
Filter funnel is also used to place a filter paper during filtration.
2. Thistle funnel
A thistle funnel is a wide mouthed glass apparatus that narrow drastically at the bottom to a very long extension.
The long extension is usually drilled through a stopper/cork. A liquid solution can thus be directed into a stoppered container without spillage
3. Dropping funnel
A dropping funnel is a wide mouthed glass apparatus with a tap that narrow drastically at the bottom to a very long extension.
The long extension is usually drilled through a stopper/cork.
A liquid solution can thus be directed into a stoppered container without spillage at the rate determined by adjusting the tap.
4. Separating funnel
A separating funnel is a wide mouthed glass apparatus with a tap at the bottom narrow extension.
A liquid solution can thus be directed into a separating funnel without spillage. It can also safely be removed from the funnel by opening the tap.
It is used to separate two or more liquid solution mixtures that form layers/immiscible.