Form 4:
Support and movement kcse questions

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1. The diagram below represents in a mammalian bone

(a) State the function of the part labeled K and L ( 2 marks)

K - Facet for articulation, with the next vertebra

L - Transverse process for attachment of muscles

(b) State the region of the body in which the bone is found ( 1 mark)

Cervical or neck region

2. State two ways in which skeletal muscle fibres are adapted to the function

( 2 marks)

- Skeletal muscles have actin and myosin which facilitate concentration and

relaxation.

- High density of mitochondria to provide energy for contraction.

- Elongated fibres to allow change in length

3. The diagram below shows the arrangement of bones and muscles in a human arm.

(i) Name the parts of the bone labeled K ( 1 mark)

Ball and socket joint

(ii) How do the muscles work to extend the arm? ( 3 marks)

Biceps (flexor muscles) relax triceps (extensor muscles) contract.

4. State three structural differences between biceps muscles and muscles of the gut

5.

(a) Name the bone ( 1 mark)

Femur

(b) Name the type of joint formed by the bone at its anterior end with the adjacent bone ( 1 mark)

Ball and socket joint

6. Give a reason why the lumbar vertebrae have long and broad transverse processes ( 2 marks)

- Attachment of powerful back muscles

- Maintain posture

-Maintain flexibility of vertebral column

7. (a) Name the three types of skeletons found in multicellular animals( 3 marks)

-Hydrostatic

- Exoskeleton

- Endoskeleton

(b) Describe how the cervical, lumbar and sacral vertebrae are suited to their

functions ( 17 marks)

Cervical vertebrae

- Presence of vertebraterial canal for passage of vertebral artery. Atlas had (broad) surfaces, for articulation with condyles of skull to permit nodding

- Axis has adontoid process/ projection Centrum to permit rotary/ turning. Act as a pivot for atlas.

- Branched/ forked/ short and broad transverse processes for attachment of neck muscles

- Presence of zygopophysis for articulation between vertebrae

- Has short reduced neural spine for attachment of neck muscles. Has wide neural canal for passage of spinal cord and protect it.

Lumbar

- Broad / long neural spine for attachment of powerful back muscles.

- Large and well developed transverse processes for attachment of muscles

- Has metamorphosis and hypothesis for muscle attachment. Large thick

centrum for support.

- Prezygopophysis and post zygopophysis present for articulation between vertebrae

Sacral vertebrae

- Interior has well developed transverse processes which are fused to the

pelvic girdle.

- Vertebrae fused for strength transmit weight of the stationary animal to

the rest of the body

- Sacrum has a broad base/ short neural spine for attachment of back

muscles

8. A bone obtained from a mammal is represented by the diagram below

(a) Name the bone ( 1 mark)

Ulna

(b) Which bones articulate with the bone shown in the diagram at the notch?

( 2 marks)

Radius and Humerus

9. (a) Name the cartilage between the bones of the vertebral column

( 1 mark)

Inter- vertebral discs/ Fibro cartilage

(b) State the function of the cartilage in (a) above ( 1 mark)

Absorb shock and reduce friction between the bones

10. How are xylem vessels adapted for support? ( 1 mark)

Side walls have deposition of lignin to strengthen them

11. The diagram below represents bones at a joint found in the hind limb of a mammal

(a) Name the bones labeled X, Y, and Z ( 3 marks)

Y- Femur

Y- Tibia

Z- Fibula

(b) (i) Name the substance found in the place labeled W ( 1 mark)

Synovial fluid

(ii) State the function of the substance named in (b) (i) above

Absorb shock/ reduce friction between joints

(c) Name the structure that joins the bones together at the joint ( 1 mark)

Ligament

(d) State the differences between ball and socket joint and the one illustrated in the diagram above ( 1 mark)

Ball and socket – allow movement in all direction

Hinge joint- Allow movement in one plane only

(e) Name the structure at the elbow that performs the same functions as the patella ( 1 mark)

Sigmoid notch

12. (a) State a characteristic that is common to all cervical vertebrae

Have short neural spines

(b) Name two tissues in plants that provide mechanical support ( 2 marks)

- Xylem tissues

- Collenchymas tissues

- Sclerenchyma tissues

- Parenchyma tissues

13. (a) Name the three types of muscles found in mammals and give an example of where each on of them is found

(b) State the difference between ball and socket and hinge joint ( 1 mark)

Ball and socket joint – allows movement in all directions i.e 3600

Hinge joint- Allows movement only on one plane i.e 1800

14. State three functions of an insects exoskeleton (3 marks)

Support and protects inner delicate tissues

Prevents excessive loss of water from body tissues

Provides surfaces for muscle attachment.

15. State the function of the following fins of a fish

(a) Dorsal fin ( 1 mark)

Prevents rolling or yawing

(b) Pectoral and pelvic fins ( 1 mark)

used for steering and prevent pitching

(c) Caudal fin ( 1 mark)

steering and forward propulsion

16. State the diagnostic features of the cardiac muscles ( 3 marks)

-Contract spontaneously and do not fatigue.

- Innervated by the autonomic nervous system

- Contractions are initiated from within the muscles

- Thy are myogenic

The following figure is a part of a pelvic girdle known as the innominate bone

(a) Make a complete drawing of the girdle ( 1 mark)

(b) Name the bones that articulate with the pelvic girdle. In each case name the part that articulates with ( 2 marks)

Femur – Articulates with acetabulum

Sacrum – articulates with ilium

17. Distinguish between tendons and ligaments ( 2 marks)

Tendons – Tissues between muscles and bone in a joint

Ligaments – Tissues between bone and another bone in a joint

18. Explain what antagonistic muscles are and give an example ( 4 marks)

They are muscles that contract while the others relax e.g triceps and biceps muscles.

19. (a) Name three types of strengthening tissues found in plants ( 3 marks)

- Xylem vessels

- Collenchyma

- Sclerenchyma

(b) Explain how the tissue in (a) above are adapted to their functions

( 3 marks)

Xylem- lignified on the side walls

Collenchyma – thickened by deposition of cellulose and pectic compounds

Sclerenchyma – lignified on the cell walls.

20. (a) Name the three main types of joint ( 3 marks)

- Immovable joints

- Synovial (movable) joints)

- Glinding/ sliding joints

(b) Give an example of where each type of joint name in (a) above is found in the human body ( 3 marks)

- Immovable joint – Cranium / skull

- Synovial joint – between limbs

- Glinding / sliding joint- vertebral column

21. What makes young herbaceous plant remain upright? ( 2 marks)

- Turgidity of the parenchyma cells

- Presence of collenchyma tissues

22. Name three types of muscles found in the human body, state where each type is located and how each is adapted to its functions. ( 12 marks)

Skeletal muscle

- Attached to the skeleton

- They are striated/ fibres that allow contractions

- Presence of mitochondria to provide energy for contractions

- Have antagonistic contractions to enhance movement

Cardiac muscle

- They are the heart muscles

- Highly connective tissues to allow harmonious contraction

- They do not fatigue

- Ends are intercalated to transmit impulses throughout the heart

Smooth muscle

- Walls of tubular organs

- Capable contracting slowly

- Innervated by autonomic nervous

- System/ involuntary movement